Environment & Ecology

Today in this article, we are talking about Environment & Ecology Information | General Knowledge, which will help you in SSC and other exams. It is part of the geography in which we are telling you about Environment and Ecology.

Environment & Ecology

Environment & Ecology


All external conditions factors matter and energy living and non-living that affect any living organism or other specified system.


Biological science that studies the relationships between living organism and their environment; study of the structure and functions of nature.


it is define ed as a unit which include all the organisms (biological components)in a given are interacting with the environment (physical component ) so that the flow energy leads to a clearly defined tropic  structure biotic diversity and material cycles.


terrestrial regions characterized  by certain types of vegetation and other forms of life. Examples include various types of deserts grasslands and forests,


Land that is covered all part of the time with saltwater or freshwater excluding streams,lakes and the open ocean.


Variety of different species genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity) variety of ecosystem (ecological diversity ) and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species of and biological communities (functional diversity).


Zone of the earth where life is found.it consists of parts of the atmosphere( troposphere)hydrosphere (mostly surface water and groundwater ) and lithosphere (mostly soil and surface rocks and sediments on the bottoms of oceans and other bodies of water)where life is found.Compare atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere.


All free undomesticated species.Sometimes the term is used to describe animals only.

Threatened spices

Wild spices that is still aboundant in its natural range but is likely became endangered because of a decline in numbers.


(O3) colorless and highly reactive gas and a major component of petrochemical smog. Also found in the ozone layer in the ultra violet rays.


Originally a combination of smoke and fog but now used to describe other mixtures of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Acid Rain

it refers to the precipitation with eleventh levels of hydrogen ions or a low pH. when fossil fuel is burnt oxides are formed in the atmosphere. the oxides formed are carbon oxides.All of these oxides from the acidic  solution when they dissolve in water.

Global Warming

Warming of the Earth,s lower atmosphere (troposphere)because of increases in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases.it can result in irreversible climate change that can last for decades to thousands of years.


the ministry of environment and forests Government of India instituted a scheme that is operating on a national basis and provides accreditation and labeling for household and other consumer product which meet certain environmental criteria.

Coral Bleaching

Coral bleaching occurs when the relation between the coral host and Zooxanthallae which give coral much of their color breaks down without the zooxanthallae the tissue of the coral,s bright white skelton is reveald.


Ability of earth,s various systems including human cultural systems and economies to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely.

Important Sanctuaries And National Park In India

Kaziranga National Park Assam One-horned rhinoceros, Gaur, Elephant, Leopart,
Sonia Rupai wildlife sanctuary Assam Elephant, sambhar, wild boar and one-horned
Namdapha national park Arunachal Pradesh Elephant,panther sambhar tiger cheetal, kobra
Gautama Buddha sanctuary Bihar Tiger liopart sambhar chetal and barking deer
Achanakmar Sanctuary Chhattisgarh Tiger boar chhetal sambhar and bison
Velvadora national park Gujarat Wolf and black bulf


Wild ass Sanctuary Gujarat Wild ass wolf nilgai and chinkara
Gir forest Gujarat India’s biggest wildlife Sanctuary famous for girl lions
Dachigama National park Jammu & Kashmir Kashmiri stag lion tailed marmot himalayan serow
Banerghatta national park Karnataka Elephant cheetal deer and grey partridge and green pigeon
Bhadra Sanctuary Karnataka Elephant cheetal panther sambhar and wild boar
Bandipur national park dandeli Sanctuary Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Elephant tiger panther sambhar deer and boar
Tungabhadra Sanctuary Karnataka Panther tiger Elephant Cheetal Sambhar and wild boar
Panchmarhi Sanctuary Madhya Pradesh Tiger Leopard wild bear and four Hourned antelope
Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary Madhya Pradesh Tiger panther boar Sambar Nilgai and barking deer
Bandhavgarh national park Madhya Pradesh Cheetal Sambhar Chinkara and wild birds
Simlipal Sanctuary Odisha Tiger panther Cheetal Nilgai and wild boar
Ghana bird Sanctuary Rajasthan Water bird black duck Cheetal and Sambhar
Khangchenzonga national park Sikkim Snow leopard musk deer and Himalayan boar
Vedanthangal bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Important bird Sanctuary
Chandraprabha  Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh Gir lion Cheetal and Sambhar
Dudhwa national park Uttar Pradesh Tiger panther Sambar Cheetal Nilgai and barking deer
Corbett National park Uttrakhand Tiger Leopart Elephant and Sambhar (named in memory of Jim Corbett)
Jaldapara Sanctuary West Bangal Rhinoceros Elephant
Sunderban Tiger Reserve West Bengal Tiger deer wild boar crocodile and Gangetic dolphin

Biosphere Reserves of India

Name States type Area (km)
Manas Assam East Himalayan 2,837 km
Dibru-saikhowa Assam East Himalayan 765 km
Seshchalam hillsa Andhra pradesh Eastern ghats 4,55.997 km
Great nicobar (UNESCO) Andaman and Nicobar island Island 885 km
Dihang-dibang Arunachal pradesh East Himalayan 5112 km
Great rann of kachchh Gujarat Desert 12,454 km
Cold desert Himachal pradesh Western Himlayan 7,770 km
Agasthyamalai Kerala Tamil NNadu Western ghats 1,828 km
Pachmarhi(unrsco) Madhya pradesh Semi arid 4,926 km
Achanakamar-amarkantak(UNESCO) Madhya Pradesh ,Chhattisgarh Mailkara Ranga 3,835 km
Nokrek Meghalaya Eastern Himalayan 820 km
Simlipal Odisha Deccan peninsula 4,374 km
Khangendzonga Sikkim Eeast Himalayan 2,620 km
Nilgiri Tamil Nadu Kerala and Karnataka Western ghats 5,520 km
Gulf of manner Tamil Nadu Coasts 10,500 km
Nanda devi Uttarakhand West Himalayan 5,860 km
Sunderban West Bangal Gangetic delta 9,630 km
Panna Madhya Pradesh Semi-Arid 2,998 km

Enviroment related Important International Agreement/Conference

UNConference on the human Enviroent Stockhoim (1972)
Convention on migratory species Bonn (1979)
Convention for the protection of the ozone layer Vienna (1985)
Pototocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer Montreal (1987)
Convention on the transboundary moment of hazardous waster Basel (1989)
Earth summit(Unconference on enviroment and development ) Rio-de-janeiro (1992)
Convention on prior informed consent Rotterdam (1998)
Unconference on sustainable development Rio-de-janeiro (2012)
Nagoya protocal on genetic resources (nagoyaprotocal) Nagoya (2010)
Convention on biological diversity(CBD-CoP-11) Hyderabad (2012)
Lima Climate change conference(CoP-20) Lima (2014)
Paris agreement(CoP-21) Paris (2015)
Marrakech conference (CoP-22) Marrakech Morocco (2016)

Wild life conservation in India

Project Year
Project Hangul 1970
Project Gir 1972
Project Tiger 1973
Project Olive Riddey Turtles 1975
Crocodile Breeding Scheme 1975
Project Manipur Thamin 1977
Project Rhino 1987
Project Elephant 1992
Project Red Panda 1996
Project Vulture 2006

Endangered species of India

Birds Great India Bustard, Forest Owlet, Valture Bangal Florican, Himalayan Quail, Siberina Crane.
Mammals Flying Squirrel, Red Panda, Pygmy Hog, Kondana Rat, Snow Leopard, Asiatic Lion, One Horned Rhinoceros.
Reptiles Gharial Hawksbill, Turtle, River Terrapin, Sispara Day Gecko.
Amphibians Flying Frog, Tiger Toad


Published by
Deep Khicher

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