In this article, we are going to share about Viceroys & Governors-General of India.
Viceroys & Governors – General of India
ADVENTURE OF THE EUROPEANS Adventure of the Europeans
- Vasco-da-game- Reached the port of Cali cut in 1498 during the reign of king Zamorin.(Hindu ruler of Cali cut)
- Settlements-Damian Salsette Chaul and Bombay (west coast) San Thome (near Madras) and at Hooghly.
- Alfonso de Albuquerque the second governor of India (first being Fransisco de Almeida) arrived in 1509 and captured Goa in AD 1510.
- Dutch East India Company was formed in AD 1602.
- Dutch were defeated by English at the Battle of Bedara in Ad 1759 and per agreement; the Dutch gained the control over Indonesia and the British over India, Sri Lanka and Malaya.
- The settlement they set-up their first factory at Masulipatnam in 1605. Their other factories were at pulicat Chinsura Patna. Balasore, Naga- pattanam Cochin, Surat, Karaikal, and Kasimbazar.
- The English East India Company was formed in 1599 under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. Jahangir grated a Farman to Captain William Hawkins permitting the English to erect a factory at Surat (1613).
- In 1690 Sir Thomas Roe succeeded in getting an imperial farman to trade and establish the factory in all parts of the Mughal Empire by ruler Jahangir.
- In 1690 a factory was established at Sultanate by Jab Char nock. In 1698 following the acquisition of zamindari of three villages of Sultanate Kalikata and Govindpur the city of Calcutta was founded. Fort William was set-up in 1700
- In 1717 John Surman obtained a firman from Farrulhsiyar which gave large concessions to the company. This far man has been called the manga Carta of the company.
- Battle of Plassey (1757) English defeated Sirajuddaula the Nawab of Bengal.
- Battle of Buxar (1764) Captain Munro defeated joined forces of Mir Qasim (Bengal) Shujauddaula (Awadh) and Shah Alam ii (Mughal)
- The Danish East India Company was formed in 1616.
- The Danish colony Tranquebar was established on Southern Coromandel coast of India.
- Settlement Serampur (Bengal) and Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu) sold their settlement to the English in 1845.
- The French East India Company was formed by Colbert under state patronage in 1664. The first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron in 1668. A factory at Masulipatnam was set-up in 1669.
- French were defeated by English in Battle of Wasdiwash(1760).
GOVERNORS – GENERAL OF BENGAL
Warren Hastings(AD 1774-85)
- Brought the dual government to an end by the Regulating Act, 1773.
- The Act of 1781 made clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the governor General-in-Council and Supreme Court at Calcutta.
- Pitt’s India Act (1784), Rohilla War (1774), First Maratha War(1775-1782) and Treaty of Salbai with Marathas (1782) and second Mysore War (1780-84). Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784) in Calcutta by Sir William Jones.
- The translator of Abhigyan-Shakuntalam in English in 1789 and wrote the introduction to the English translation of Bhagavad Gita by Charles Wilkins.(1792).
Lord Cornwallis (AD-1786-93)
- Third Mysore War (1760-92) and Treaty of Seringapatnam
- Introduced permanent settlement in Bengal and Bihar (1793).
- He is called the father of civil services in India introduced judicial reforms by separating revenue administration and established a system of circles thanes headed by a Daroga (an Indian).
Sir John Shore(AD 1793-98)
- Played an important role in the introduction of Permanent Settlement.
- Battle of Kharda between the Nizams and the Maratha(1795).
Lord Wellesley (AD 1798-1805)
- Introduction of the Subsidiary Alliance (1798) first alliance with Nizam of Hyderabad followed by Mysore, Tanjore, Awadh the Peshwa the Bhonsle and the Scindia.
- Treaty of Bassein (1802) and the second Maratha War.
George Barlow (1805-07)
- Vellore Mutiny(1806)
- Lord Minto l(AD1813-23)
- Anglo Nepal War(1814-1816) and Treaty of Sagauli (1816).
- Third Maratha War (1817-18) dissolution of Maratha confederacy and creation of Bombay Presidency.
- Pindari War and establishment of Ryotwari system by Thomas Munro(1820).
Lord Amherst (AD 1823-28)
- First Burmese War (1824-26), Treaty of Yandaboo(1826) and capture of Bharatpur (1826).
VICEROYS OF INDIA
Lord Canning (AD 1856-62)
- The last Governor General and the first Victory withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
- Revolt of 1857, Mutiny took place.Indian penal code 1860 was passed.
- Passed the Act 1858 which East India Company.The Universities of Calcutta Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
Lord Elgin (AD 1862)
- Wahhabi Movement
Lord Mayo(AD 1869-72)
- Organized the Statistical Survey of India survey of India and for the first time in India history, a census was held in 1871.
- Started the process of financial decentralization in India. Established the Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
- Established the Rajkot collage at Kathiawar and Mayo college at Ajmer for the Indian Princes.
- He was the only viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andaman in 1872.
Lord North Brooke (AD 1876-80)
- Known as the Viceroy of Reverse Character.
- Royal titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of Empress of India by Queen Victoria the Delhi Durbar in January 1877.
- Vernacular Press Act (also called the Gagging Act to restrain the circulation of printed matter) and the Arms Act(made it mandatory) in 1878.
Lord Ripon (AD 1880-84)
- First factory Act of 1881 (prohibited labor).Local self-government was introduced in 1882.
- Repealed the Vernacular press Act in 1882. Finance of the center was divided.
- Lord Ripon is regarded as the founding father of local self-government in India.
- An Education commission appointed under Sir William Hunter in 1882 to improve primary and secondary education.
- The beat Bill Controversy (1883) enabled Indian District magistrates to try European criminals.
Lord Dufferin (AD 1884-88)
- Third Burmese War (AD 1885-86), Establishment of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
- Lord Lansdowne (AD 1888-94)
- Factory act of 1891 granted weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for woman and children.
- Civil services were divided into Imperial provincial and Subordinate services.
- Indian councils Act of1892.
- The Durand commission defined the Durand line between British India and Afghanistan (new between Pakistan and Afghanistan) in 1893.
Lord Elgin ll(AD 1894-99)
- Southern uprisings of 1899 Great Famine of 1896-1897 and Lyall commission on famine was established.
Lord Curzon(AD 1899-1905)
- A commission was appointed under Sir Thomas Raleigh in 1902 to suggest reforms regarding universities the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed on the basis of its recommendation.
- Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904. Thus Archaeological Survey of India was established.
- Agriculture Research Institute was established at Pusa in Delhi.Partitioned Bengal in 1905.
Lord Minto(AD 1905-10)
- Swadeshi movements (1905-08) Foundation of Muslim League (1906); Surat session and split in the Congress (1907). Morley Minto Reforms(1909).
Lord Harding (AD 1910-16)
- Capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911) Delhi Durban Partitions of Bengal was canceled. The Hindu Mahasabha was founded in 1915 by Pundit, Madan, Mohan, Malayalam.
Lord Chelmsford (AD 1916-21)
- Gandhi returned to India (1915) and founded the Sabarmati Ashram(1916) Champaran Satyagraha Satyagrahabat Ahmadabad (1981) Kheda Satyagraha (1919).
- Rowlatt Act (March, 1919) and the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13th April 1919)
- Khilafat committee was formed and Khilafat Movement started (1919-20).
- Non-Cooperation Movement started (1920-22) Woman’s University was founded at Poona (1916).
Lord Reading (AD 1921-26)
- Repeal of Rowlatt Act Chauri-Chaura Incident. RSS founded in 1925. Suppressed Non-Cooperation Movement Formation of Swaraj Party.
- Moplah Rebellion (1921) took place.Kakori Train Robbery on 1st August 1925. Communal Riots of 1923-25 in Multan Amritsar Delhi etc.
Lord Irwin (AD 1926-31)
- Simon commission visited India in 1927. Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1926.
- Dandi March (12th March, 1930). Civil disobedience movement (1930).
- First Round Table Conference was held in England in 1930. Gandhi Irwin Pact.
- Lahore session of Congress and Poorna Swaraj Declaration (1925).
Lord Willing Don (AD 1931-36)
- Second Round Table Conference in Lahore in 1931 and third in 1932.
- The government of India Act (1935) was passed. communal Awards (16th August 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhi Ji went on an epic fast to protest against this division.
Lord Linlithgow (AD 1936-43)
- Congress Ministries resignation celebrated as Deliverance day by the Muslim League (1939) the Lahore Resolution (23rd March 1940) of the Muslim League demanding the separate state for the Muslim.(it was at this session that Jinnah Propounded his Two-Nation Theory) Outbreak of World War ll in1939. Cripps Mission in 1942. Quit India movement (8th August 1942).
Lord Wave ll (Ad 1943-47)
- Cabinet mission plan (16th March 1946).
- The first meeting of the constituted Assembly was held on 9th December 1946.
- Arranged the Shimla Conference on 25th June 1945 with the failure of the Indian Congress and Muslim League.
- Election to the constituted Assembly was held and an interim government was appointed under Nehru.
Lord Mountbatten (March to August 1947)
- Last Viceroy of British India and the First Governor General of Free India.
- Partition of India decided by the 3rd June Plan or Mountbatten Plan.
- Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C Rajagopalachari the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India.
- Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on 4th July 1947 by which India became Independence on 15th August 1947